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Another important form of transparency surrounds conflicts of interest. Physicians can have certain financial relationships with industry can create conflicts of interest such as:
Disclosure policies—called Sunshine Laws—are commonly used to regulate conflicts-of-interest and there is limited evidence that while it may not go far enough, disclosure policies to curtail referrals and treatment decisions that represent a conflict.2
1. There is a large volume research indicating that self-referral has a major effect on increasing medical costs. Levin, David C.; Rao, Vijay M., "Turf Wars in Radiology: Updated Evidence on the Relationship Between Self-Referral and the Overutilization of Imaging," Journal of the American College of Radiology 5 (7): 806–810
2. Matthew Chao, Regulating Conflicts of Interest through Public Disclosure: Evidence from a Physician Payments Sunshine Law, California Institute of Technology (February 2015).